VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has conducted a pilot study for improving the energy efficiency of a typical Moscow residential district with a population of about 14,000. Based on the study, VTT developed three repair concepts for improving the energy efficiency of both buildings and entire residential districts while also reducing their environmental impact.
The basic concept developed by VTT for residential apartment buildings in Moscow incorporates affordable and easily implemented minimum repairs. Even the simplest of repairs could reduce the heating energy consumption in these buildings by about 40%. The improved repair concept can result in even better energy efficiency or eco-efficiency. Calculations for the advanced repair concept show that it would be possible to reduce heating energy consumption in buildings by up to 70%, and of electricity by about 25%. In practice, this involves for example improving heat insulation, installing heat recovery equipment in ventilation systems and improving water systems.
Improving whole districts
Statistics published by Rosstat indicate that there are some 40,000 residential buildings in Moscow, with a total of nearly 4 million homes. Of this residential building stock, 52% was built between 1945 and 1975. Many of them are in poor shape and waste a lot of energy.
VTT also developed three concepts for improving eco-efficiency in residential districts. In these concepts, the focus was on analysing energy production options, improving energy, water and waste water networks, improving waste management and improving outdoor lighting. Significant energy savings may be achieved at the district level using the repair scenarios presented. These savings may amount to nearly 40% in electricity demand and more than 70% in heating demand.
At present, more than 60% of the community waste generated in residential districts ends up at a landfill, while just under a third is incinerated and about 10% recycled. Developing waste management processes would allow the reuse rate to be increased to more than 75%. This would require not only infrastructure development but active waste recycling procedures adopted by the residents.